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Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

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Greyson Garcia
Greyson Garcia

Boxer ((BETTER))

The statue portrays a boxer seated with his arms resting on his knees, his head turned to the right and slightly raised with mouth open (fig. 4). The figure is naked except for his boxing gloves, which are of an ancient Greek type with strips of leather attached to a ring around the knuckles and fitted with woolen padding (fig. 5), and the infibulation of his penis by tying up the foreskin, which was both for protection and an element of decorum.[4] The boxer is represented just after a match. His muscular body and full beard are those of a mature athlete, and his thick neck, lanky legs, and long arms are well suited to the sport. His face exhibits bruises and cuts. His lips are sunken as though his teeth have been pushed in or knocked out. His broken nose and cauliflower ears are common conditions of boxers, probably the result of previous fights, but the way he is breathing through his mouth and the bloody cuts to his ears and face make clear the damage inflicted by his most recent opponent. The muscles of his arms and legs are tense as though, despite the exhaustion of competition, he is ready to spring up and face the next combatant.


The pose and powerful physique of the Boxer at Rest have been aptly compared to Goya's Giant (fig. 9).[7] While the great Spanish realist painter could not have known the statue, Goya seems to be drawing on the same primal energy in his portrait. It is not known whether the Boxer at Rest was originally part of a larger group or was intended as a solitary work. Large-scale sculptural groups were certainly undertaken in the Hellenistic period but it is entirely possible that the statue functioned on its own, with the turn of his head only implying another or other figures in the scene such as the approach of his next opponent. His pose and the treatment of his beard recall two statues of Herakles, the great mythical strong man of antiquity, attributed to the bronze sculptor Lysippos, one of the most innovative masters of the fourth century B.C. and court sculptor of Alexander the Great. The assimilation of a realistic portrayal of a boxer after a match with a famous mythic hero at rest after his labors makes it difficult to know if a real or mythical figure is portrayed in the Boxer at Rest. Still, it is more likely that a real boxer is commemorated and, like Herakles, who successfully completed one impossible labor after another, there is no doubt that he will succeed again despite his battered state.

The statue was hollow cast by means of the indirect lost wax method. As was characteristic in antiquity, the sculpture was made in several different sections that were then welded together: head, body, genitals, arms above the gloves, forearms, left leg, and the middle toes. The top of the head was restored in antiquity. Repairs to bronze statues must have been relatively common, although not very many major ancient restorations are preserved today. The bronze statue of Sleeping Eros in the Metropolitan's collection (see fig. 8) has a large restored section of drapery between the legs, and, like the Boxer at Rest, which clearly had a long history in antiquity, the repair may have been done long after the statue was first created. Although the inset eyes of the Boxer at Rest are missing, they would have been convincingly rendered, like a pair in the Metropolitan's collection (fig. 11). The statue is remarkable for its extensive use of copper inlays, especially for the wounds to the boxer's head and the drips of blood on the right thigh and arm, as well as the lips, nipples, and the straps and stitching of the boxing gloves.[9] Of particular note is the bruise under the right eye, which was cast with a different alloy to give it a darker color. Extensive cold working of the statue, especially the hair, was done as part of the finishing process. The stone base is modern but it is probably a close approximation of what the ancient base looked like. Originally, the use of stone would have added to the realistic effect so powerfully rendered in the bronze.

Boxing was an ancient and revered sport in antiquity. Practiced already in the Bronze Age, it is recorded in the eighth century B.C. among the athletic contests performed during the funeral games of Patrokles in the 23rd book of Homer's Iliad. It was first introduced into the Olympic games in 688 B.C. and became an integral competition at all of the major panhellenic sanctuaries where athletic events were held in connection with religious festivities. Professional boxers trained to compete in local and panhellenic competitions, and would undertake a circuit of the games, sometimes achieving legendary status. An Archaic Athenian black-figure vase in the Metropolitan's collection illustrates a rare scene of two boxers training to the accompaniment of music played from a double aulos (flute), likely to hone their rhythm and reflexes (fig. 13).

The prizes at the games differed from place to place. In the panhellenic games, athletes were awarded wreaths: wild olive at Olympia, laurel at Delphi, pine at Isthmia, and wild celery at Nemea. In commemoration of their accomplishments, athletic victors were allowed to erect statues of themselves in the sanctuary precincts or in their home towns. One of the few large-scale bronze portraits of a boxer to survive other than the Boxer at Rest is the head of a boxer from the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia (fig. 14). The flattened nose, battered face and cauliflower ears make clear a veteran pugilist is represented, and the olive wreath on his head identifies him as a victor at the Olympic games. It has been suggested that he may represent Satyros, son of Lycanax, who was known to have won the boxing competition of the Nemean games five times, twice in the Pythian games at Delphi and twice at Olympia.[12] The Greek travel writer Pausanias saw his bronze statue, a work of the Athenian sculptor Silanion, in the sanctuary at Olympia in the second century A.D.

The amazing preservation of the Boxer at Rest for centuries after its creation is a miracle in itself and a testament to the longstanding appreciation of Greek art and culture by the ancient Romans. However, there may have been a reason for the statue's safeguarding beyond its outstanding artistic qualities. Parts of the toes and fingers of the Boxer at Rest are worn from frequent touching in antiquity. It has been suggested that the statue was attributed healing powers, as was known to have occurred with other statues of famous athletes.[14] An Early Imperial vitreous-paste ring stone appears to represent the same statue of a boxer sitting on a rock and may have been a talisman for the ring's owner.[15] It is perhaps thanks to its popular veneration that the bronze statue Boxer at Rest was protected so carefully in late antiquity when the Baths of Constantine were destroyed. Imagining the placement of this magnificent statue in a public setting such as the Baths of Constantine allows us a glimpse of one of the many treasures that made Rome the greatest city of the ancient world. It is fitting that the sculpture is now displayed in the Jaharis Gallery, which is a grand Beaux-Arts space designed by the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White meant to evoke the monumental public baths of ancient Rome. Do not miss the chance to see this ancient masterpiece during its brief visit to The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

There are three types of boxers: the American boxer, German boxer, and English boxer. While all boxers are considered a single breed, there are slight variations in appearance based on the type/lineage.

The Professional Boxer's Pension Fund is the only pension fund for boxers in the world. It was created by California law in 1982 to help provide funds for boxers in their later years. Currently, the fund totals more than $5.3 million.

CSAC regulates professional boxing, professional and amateur kickboxing, and professional mixed martial arts (MMA) in California by licensing all participants and supervising the events. Only boxers are eligible for the pension money.

The boxer's coat is short and sheds moderately. Some boxers are a rich, fawn color and others are brindle. Their face or mask is usually black, but many have white face markings and white on the chest and paws.

The boxer has a high need for companionship and exercise. If these needs are not met, boxers can be destructive if left alone in the house. Boxers are ideal for people who want a canine companion with them most of the time or for larger busy families with homes that are often occupied by someone. They can do well on a country estate or in a city apartment as long as they have the opportunity to romp and expel energy. If you live in an urban area, regular walks are necessary.

Boxers are descendants of extinct bullenbaiser breeds crossed with mastiff, bulldog and possibly Great Dane and even a terrier. They were developed in Germany in the 19th century, initially as bull baiting dogs and later as butcher's helpers, controlling cattle in slaughterhouses. Some breed historians say boxers are named from the German word boxl, their slaughterhouse designation. Other fanciers contend the name boxer comes from the characteristic way that they use their forepaws to play, sparring much like a human boxer. Boxers were not imported to the United States until after World War I. After 1940 the breed rose to become among the most popular in America.

Currently, the boxer engine is a defining trait of the Subaru brand. From the BRZ sports car to the Ascent family-sized SUV, every vehicle in its lineup has a flat-4 with or without turbocharging. Until a few years ago, some Subarus also had a flat-6 engine.

Inline and V-type engines are tall and narrow, while a boxer engine is squat and rectangular. Because of its low, flat shape, a boxer engine sits lower in the vehicle, resulting in a lower center of gravity. In turn, this gives cars with boxer engines an inherent edge in lateral stability and decreased roll when hustling around corners, resulting in greater balance and predictable handling characteristics. 041b061a72


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